How Does Garbage Collection in Perl Work?

Perl is reference counting, and it's famous not to free garbage at all. It's recycling unused variables, variables which went out of scope, but it's never giving back memory to the OS. Even the final global destruction phase does by default shortcuts for performance. It only walks through all objects and IO objects to call its DESTROY methods and close IO handles, but it doesn't actually free memory, esp. not the code OPs. Variables (SVs) are kept in arena pools, which are also not recycled, only individual SV members in the pool are recycled, but an empty pool never. So youll never see a perl application go down in memory usage, only up.

I once started working on a GC branch to actually free arena pools and unload unused shared libs, but it was too complicated at the first attempt. • Other Questions

Do you use a collection agency for your overdue invoices? Why or why not?

3rd party collections agency should be last resort, no a way of doing business.

First, it is expensive (10%50% fee).

Second, you will lose the client.

Third, it is time consuming.Best practice is to have a collections policy and follow up with the client (e-mail,text,call) . Statistically, in US, you will be able to collect over 90% of invoices this way.

If this doesn't work you can stop the service (make sure your contract allows that) to the client and notify them you are passing matter to a collections agency.

Many times that will pay.

An operationally good business should forward less than 2% to collections agency.For increased results you can automate the whole receivables process with invoice and debtor tracking software. A good solution will automate all of it, from checking in with client regarding upcoming invoice, to reminding about past due balance to forwarding it to a collections agency.


What is the best way to sell a MtG collection?

There are no good ways, so choosing a 'best' one is simply choosing one that is least bad.A collection is a large, valuable asset with very low liquidity that is difficult to ship around the world.Your best bet is to get some expert advice (if the collection is not your own) and split it into several smaller sections that will have a better shot of selling individually.

You can also try attending large events with your collection (or most valuable parts of it) in order to contact potential buyers physically. Not having to deal with shipping is also a huge advantage when it somes to selling anything MTG related.After you get rid of anything of value from your collection, you can sell the rest at bulk value to some MTG shop, use the cards to plaster your watercloset walls and/or give the cards to local kids. I would recommend the latter.


What albums are a must in any music collection?

Rubber Soul, Revolver, Cheap Thrills, Blood On The Tracks, Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, The Times They Are A-Changin, The Clash, London Calling, Sandinista, Freash Cream, Disraeli Gears, The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust, Catch the Wind, Sunshine Superman, Wa-Do-Dem, My AIM Is True, This Years Model, Hot Rats, Howlin Wind, GP, Grievous Angel, Living In The Flood, Live At The Apollo, Surrealistic Pillow, Are You Experienced?, Axis: Bold As Love, The Harder They Come, Diamonds and Rust, LED Zeppelin (14), Bass Culture, Broken English, Mezzanine, World War III, In Search Of The Lost Chord, Nazz, Yellow Moon, Otis Redding - Live in Europe, Horses, Easter, Equal Rights, Ummagumma, Controversy, 1999, Under Heavy Manners, Come On In, Mixed Bag, Aftermath, Decembers Children, Sticky Fingers, Out Of Our Heads, Never Mind The Bollocks, Electric Warrior, Astral Weeks, Moondance, Pay It All Back, Vol. 3, Velvet Underground, White Heat White Light, Excitable Boy, Whos Next, Quadrophenia, Psychedelic World of the 13th Floor Elevators, Paris au Printemps


In what ways are we as Muslims collectively doing wrong?

We waste too much time on cooking and relishing gourmet food and consequently that time better spent in discussing religion or course books is taken away from parents and children. As a community we dont believe in buying assets, but that doesnt mean we should spent it all on clothes and food. We need to invest in books, in touring and travelling to different places, in the education of our children.

As a community we need to stop spending lavishly in weddings again more on education and less on such non productive stuff.Then we need to learn to live as a community and help our poor brethren. Each capable household should sponsor the education of at least one poor child-if that is not possible then educate poor children for free.

Dissemination of Arabic is al so important. The upper classes discouraged Arabic and encouraged Persian/Urdu and that disempowered the masses. With better understanding of the Quran the poor would become aware of their rights.


What is it that engineering students in India are collectively doing wrong?

Not following our passion : I have many friends in IIT, NIT, BITS , other state institutions, private colleges etc. I rarely come across someone who has chosen his branch according to his interests. Mostly the choice is biased towards better colleges & so-called popular streams. Believe me , going to a slightly lower ranked college with a branch you are passionate about is far better than going to a better college with a stream you never cared about.( this holds mostly for tier-3 colleges) : Just studying for the sake of degree & jobs. I've seen people who have no clue about what they are doing.

Placement oriented attitudeVery limited interest in R&DVery few people actually understand what programming is & it's importance.Too much interest in almost everything except engineering . I agree that , one should have an enjoyable , healthy life for survival , but too much interest in not so necessary things has never been beneficial for anybody .


How much of Greece's problem could be solved by proper tax collection?

Nikos Lekkas, the director of Tax Control in Greece, says yearly tax avoidance amounts to 40 to 45 billion Euro! Enough to pull back the budget to equilibrium and then some...Now of course you want to tackle a big chunk of sociological habits: corruption, complicity and self-preservation of elites, old cultural habits... this takes time, demographic time...Now OTOH I've heard a lot of anecdotes from Greek and German Friends, that run this way: Greek student goes abroad to find work (Germany, France, Belgium in our cases); does find work; and experiences... an administration that works, civil servants that explain, money that's being paid on time, power when you turn lights on...People who respect rules... And they say "OMG! When I think back of Greece" But they also say "When I'm back home, I want to make this happen, I can't take the 'old habits' anymore..." So...

de "Frau Lagarde hat ganz recht!"

fr Grce : le contrleur fiscal dnonce la corruption


Does the IRS have collection agencies contact debtors?

Dan O'Connell pretty well explained it. However I think he left out one thing. If you do not want the collection agencies collecting on your taxes then all you have to do to have your case moved back to the IRS is send the collections agency a letter telling them that you want the IRS to handle your case. After they receive your letter they must return it back to IRS inventory. It will take about 4 - 6 weeks.Why would you want that? Because they have very limited collections ability and they can only agree on full pay installment agreements. Often contacting a Tax Resolution Specialist like me will get you a resolution other than full pay.It would be in your interest to have a Tax Resolution Specialist review your case before agreeing to anything. If you already made an agreement you can have the agreement changed if you qualify.

Don't tell the collection agency anything about your finances, or the IRS, without help


What is a collective behavior?

The term Collective behavior refers to behaviors which do not reflect social norms (laws, social mores, conventional social values, and etc.), and may occur spontaneously, and can be very destructive, and/or dangerous as well. The best examples I can think of, are actions historically taken by the Ku Klux Klan against African Americans. The bank robbery committed by Patty Hearst, and the Symbonese Liberation Army, in the early 70′s, is another example that comes to mind. I researched the answer online to find the answer, and there is quite a lot of information there. The site "Wikapedia" was where I found the answer, if you want to know more about Collective behavior. I certainly am glad you asked the C.

b. question, because honestly I had never heard the term. Thankyou Yousaf, for providing me an opportunity to learn something new today. The term was first used in 1908.What is collective behaviour?


How does garbage collection work in Android 4.2 Jelly Bean Dalvik? - please see the comment

In Android Dalvik, every process runs in its own virtual machine and every application has its own process and heap. Also, every application has own Garbage collector, even if it is sharing memory with other applications.Dalvik Garbage Collector uses Mark and Sweep approach. Here is how it works -

1. Maintain a free list that contains all the heap memory blocks that are free.

2. If a process requests a free block and the free list is empty, then invoke the Garbage Collector which works as follows - a. Mark the bits for objects that are in use and hence should not be garbage collected. These mark bits are stored separate from other heap memory. b.Sweep and collect all unmarked heap blocks and put them back to the free list. You can refer to the following link for more details on Mark and Sweep - Mark-and-Sweep Garbage Collection


What's the best way to sell a stamp collection?

Start by doing some basic research and find out if you have a collection with interesting items in it or one that is referred to as a school boy collection (means common stamps, no value). You can opt to find a reputable stamp auction and ask them for a value. If you like what you hear, let them put it to auction. Auctions are hit and miss. You might get quoted value, you might get under the valuation. Other option: find someone interested in purchasing your collection. Again, this is where you need a reputable dealer. He/she will evaluate the collection and offer a price. Note: you will not get catalogue value for your collection. The dealer is in it to make money. Last option is to spend time researching what you have and break the collection down and sell it on eBay or another auction site. This takes far more work on your part, but you keep a larger part of the profit


Why is garbage collection an important programming language feature?

Probably the greatest benefit of Java's garbage collection, in retrospect, is that it enabled the creation of high quality libraries.Before garbage collection, there had to be strong (yet runtime-unenforced) contracts between a library and its consumer regarding memory management. Whichever one allocated memory and other resources also had to free that memory and those resources. In C, this led to convoluted handle-based libraries, tricky error handling, and many different ways to shoot one's self in one's foot.With garbage collection, the "contract" is enforced by the runtime, because memory and resources are automatically freed when they are no longer used. Suddenly it was possible to pass things into and out of a library without worrying about memory leaks, and most (but not all!) resource lifecycle issues were dramatically simplified.

I discuss this in more depth in this QCon presentation: Keynote: How the 10 Key Lessons from Java and CHistory Inform the Cloud

Artículos recomendados
Knowledge About Collection Agency - Selected Publications of Collection Agency
Selected publications of collection agencyArmstrong, Eva V. (1933). "Some Treasures in the E. F. Smith Collection". General Magazine and Historical Chronicle. 25: .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted; .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit; .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none; .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33; .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritArmstrong, Eva V. (1933). "Some Incidents in the Collection of the E. F. Smith Memorial Library". Journal of Chemical Education. 10: 356358. doi:10.1021/ed010p356.Armstrong, Eva V. (1936). "Playground of a Scientist". The Scientific Monthly. 42 (4): 339348. Bibcode:1936SciMo..42..339A. JSTOR16089.Armstrong, Eva V. (1937). The story of the Edgar Fahs Smith memorial collection in the history of chemistry. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.Armstrong, Eva V. (February 1938). "Jane Marcet and her "Conversations on Chemistry"". Journal of Chemical Education. 15 (2): 53. Bibcode:1938JChEd..15...53A. doi:10.1021/ed015p53.Armstrong, Eva V.; Lukens, Hiram S. (January 1939). "Lazarus Ercker and his Probierbuch. Sir John Pettus and his Fleta Minor". Journal of Chemical Education. 16 (1): 553562. Bibcode:1939JChEd..16..553A. doi:10.1021/ed016p553.Armstrong, Eva V.; Deischer, Claude K. (January 1942). "Johann Rudolph Glauber (1604-70). His chemical and human philosophy". Journal of Chemical Education. 19 (1): 3. Bibcode:1942JChEd..19....3A. doi:10.1021/ed019p3.Armstrong, Eva V. (1947). "Dr. Henry Moyes, Scotch chemist". Journal of Chemical Education. 24 (4): 169. Bibcode:1947JChEd..24..169A. doi:10.1021/ed024p169.Edgar F. Smith Memorial Collection; Armstrong, Eva; Smith, Edgar F. (1960). Catalog of the Edgar Fahs Smith memorial collection in the history of chemistry. Boston: G. K. Hall.------Lyman Draper Manuscript Collection of paris jacksonThe Lyman Draper Manuscript Collection includes his extensive notes and correspondence as well as the works and papers of a number of notable early Americans, collected by Lyman Draper on the history of the trans-Allegheny West. This area includes portions of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, the entire Ohio Valley, and the Mississippi Valley. Among the most notable of the figures whose papers he collected are Joseph Brant, Daniel Boone, George Rogers Clark, Thomas S. Hinde, John Donelson, James Robertson, General Joseph Martin, and Simon Kenton. Most materials cover the time period from the 1740s through the 1810s. The Draper Collection comprises nearly 500 volumes.The State Historical Society of Wisconsin (now Wisconsin Historical Society), for which Draper served as corresponding secretary from 1854 to 1886, owns the collection of original 18th and 19th-century papers. Major research libraries around the United States have microfilm of the collection. An index of the Lyman Draper Manuscript Collection is shown below:Series Title Volumes:A George Bedinger Papers Vo. 1B Draper's Life of Boone Vol. 1-5, 7-9C Boone Papers Vol. 1-6, 10-33D Border Forays Vol. 1-5E Brady and Wetzel Papers Vol. 1-16F Joseph Brant papers Vol. 1-22G Brant Miscellanies Vol. 1-3H Daniel Broadhead Papers Vol. 1-3J George Rogers Clark Papers Vol. 1-64K George Rogers Clark Misec.. Vol. 1-5L Jonathan Clark Papers Vol. 1-2M William Clark Papers Vol. 1-6N William Croghan Papers Vol. 1-3O Daniel Drake Paper Vol. 1-2P Draper's Biographical Sketches Vol. 1-3Q Draper's Historical Misc Vol. 1-8R Draper's Memoranda Books Vol. 1-3S Draper's Notes Vol. 1-33T Thomas Forsyth Papers Vol. 1-9U Frontier Wars Papers Vol. 1-24V Georgia, Alabama & So. Carolina Papers Vol. 1W Josiah Harmar Papers Vol. 1-2X William Henry Harrison Vol. 1-5Y Thomas S. Hinde Papers Vol. 1-41Z Illionas Papers Vol. 1AA William Irving Papers Vol. 1-2BB Simon Kenton Papers Vol. 1-13CC Kentucky Papers Vol. 1-36DD Kings Mountain Papers Vol. 1-18EE London Documents At Albany Vol. 1FF Mecklenburg Declaration, By Draper Vol. 1-3GG Mecklenburg Declaration Papers Vol. 1-3HH Mecklenburg Declaration Misc.. Vol. 1-2JJ Newspaper Extracts Vol. 1-4KK North Carolina Papers Vol. 1LL Paris Documents at Albany Vol. 1MM Robert Paterson Papers Vol. 1-3NN Pittsburg and Northwest Virginia Papers Vol. 1-10OO Pension Statements Vol. 1PP Potter Papers Vol. 1QQ William Preston Papers Vol. 1-6RR Rudolph-Noy Papers Vol. 1-10SS David Shepherd Papers Vol. 1-5TT South Carolina Papers Vol. 1UU South Carolina In The Revolution Misc Vol. 1-2VV Thomas Sumter Papers Vol. 1-24WW John Cleves Symmes Papers Vol. 1-4XX Tennessee Papers Vol. 1-7YY Tecumseh Papers Vol. 1-13ZZ Virginia Papers Vol. 1-16------Public law libraries and access to self-help of collection agencyPublic law libraries, once used primarily by legal professionals, now serve mostly non-attorneys handling their own legal matters. In court, self-represented litigants are a growing percentage of litigants, particularly in family law. Other non-attorney library patrons include entrepreneurs; people documenting personal loans, sales of goods and services, and simple real estate transfers; and people settling the affairs of family members who have died. For many of these patrons, attorneys' services are unaffordable, while others mistrust lawyers or find self-help to be more convenient than finding, evaluating, and hiring an attorney.Many of these patrons are referred to the law library after seeking pro bono representation, or contacting a legal aid program such as those funded by the Legal Services Corporation. Due to chronic shortages of volunteer attorneys and of funding, only a fraction of the need is met annually. These programs often refer people to a public law library.Because of the specialized nature of legal information resources, these patrons often need more hands-on assistance than law libraries' traditional patrons. Many law libraries now provide assistance by offering seminars and workshops; collaborating with public libraries; and using the internet and other media to provide instructions and forms. Some libraries either run or host self-help centers with attorneys or paralegals available to assist self-represented litigants.In a 2013 survey of public and academic law libraries, the Self-Represented Litigation Network found that virtually all of the 153 responding law libraries provided some services to self-represented litigants. Services included:traditional and computerized legal research help and referrals to other programse-mail reference, pathfinders, guides, and explanations of the legal processlegal information websites for self-represented partiescollections of materials for the non-lawyerdocument delivery of resources in the library by fax, scan, and delivery referral sheets to their librarychat referencecourt forms: forms instructions, forms in plain language, forms in multiple languages, form document assembly programs, assistance with filling out forms, forms creation, writing of form instructionspublic computers with access to the Internete-filing supportLEP service with books and/or brochures in multiple languages, bi-lingual staff, and provision for either interpreters or access to a language line, andservices to prisoners.Libraries hosting self-help centers and programs reported providing:legal clinicslawyer in the library programsmediation programsself-help centers either staffed by law library employees, hosted in the law library but staffed by another organization, or providing support for self-help centers in another location, andeducational services such as workshops and webinars.An earlier compilation, "Directory of Library-Based Self-Help Programs," lists 29 programs in 16 states and the District of Columbia, providing information about services offered and program administration.------Abu Ghraib's "ghost detainees" of collection agencyThe practice of ghosting first achieved widespread attention in 2005 when the Washington Post broke a story suggesting that the U.S. Army and the CIA were detaining "unlawful enemy combatants" at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq with little or no due process. According to the article, the CIA asked military intelligence officials to let them house ghost detainees at Abu Ghraib by September 2003 and proposed a Memorandum of Understanding between the agencies on the topic that November. The Army and the Defense Department have acknowledged that the United States has used ghosting in the past, but have said it was limited to isolated incidents. According to documents obtained by the Post, "unregistered CIA detainees were brought to Abu Ghraib several times a week in late 2003."The Post cited as evidence the 2004 report by Major General Antonio Taguba:... in a report describing abuses of detainees at the Abu Ghraib prison near Baghdad, he blamed the 800th Military Police Brigade, which guarded the prison, for allowing 'other government agencies' a euphemism that includes the CIA to hide 'ghost' detainees at Abu Ghraib. The practice, he wrote, 'was deceptive, contrary to Army doctrine, and in violation of international law'.When news of a detainee known only as Triple X became known to the public in late 2003, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was questioned about him. Rumsfeld was evasive, and speculated about why someone would want to keep a prisoner hidden from the Red Cross. This is considered a war crime under international law.On September 9, 2004, General Paul J. Kern testified before the Senate Armed Services Committee, stating that an inquiry he led found that the Army had cooperated with the CIA in hiding dozens of ghost detainees from the Red Cross. Kern told the Committee there may have been as many as 100 ghost detainees.In addition to allegations and reports about ghost detainees in Iraq or East Asian countries such as Afghanistan and Pakistan, there have been reports that the US had held prisoners in detention centers in some European states. In 2006 the Swiss senator, Dick Marty wrote a memorandum on "alleged detention in Council of Europe states." He said the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had captured about 100 persons on European territory and subsequently rendered them to countries where they may have been tortured. The BBC reported that this number of 100 extraordinarily rendered persons is in addition to the estimated 100 U.S. ghost detainees.
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