What Led to the Fall of the Mongol Empire?

There are many reasons for the collapse of the Mongol Empire, but I think that the most important and unique reason is their hereditary laws, or specifically ultramogeniture and it's application in semi-feudal societies, such as the Mongol Khanate.The hereditary laws within the Mongol Empire, and other Khanates along history, gauranteed that large Khanates will dissolve into smaller Khanates over time

1. What led to the enslavement of Jews by Egyptians in pharaoh times?

The same reason that slavery existed all over the world - the need for cheap or free labor to aid in the development of one's personal lot and one's country in general

2. Which would win: A team of four Jordans led by Lebron James, or a team of four Lebrons led by Michael Jordan?

If Jordan is the best, which I believe, then a team of 4 Jordans led by LeBron would be better than 4 LeBrons led by Jordan. With a team of that caliber (either one), who needs a leader?

3. what led to the rise of the roman empire?

The rivalries between Roman generals and their assorted ambitions were played against one another. From 505 BCE to roughly 27 BCE Rome existed as a Republic lead. However, only the rich could vote and hold public office, largely excluding the Plebes from government altogether. This led to various squabbles as rich Patricians used their powers to keep the Plebes in a position of servitude, and the Plebes launched insurrections against these inequities. Eventually the Plebes managed to get some reforms past, which included the creation of an office known as the Tribune of the Plebes. The Tribune's responsibility was to act as a cheek on Senate power, and officially, only the plebes could hold the rank of Tribune. However, corruption remained, and the government essentially remained in the control of the Patricians. They system carried on, but not without its problems. Part of it was the fact that Rome had no singular commander politically. In times of crisis a Dictator could be elected, but according to the Roman constitution, this post only lasted a few months. This system of having two heads of state and government made things difficult in many ways. It set up some of the greatest problems the Roman Republic faced. Hannibal played two of Rome's consuls against one another to set up the Battle of Cannae, Rome's greatest defeat until the 4th and 5th centuries CE. And the fact that their were two Consuls also set up great competition for the office. Generally, the Roman military and the Roman government had very little separation. Various Roman Senators took various military commands while simultaneously holding seats in the Senate. And Generals that were victorious in war commonly used their soldiers to either increase their vote margins or to threaten the Senate into giving them political power. In the case of Sulla, he outright invaded the Roman capital and took over the government. Sulla's civil wars with his rival, Marius set up a chain of events in which various generals fought with each other, or at least competed against one another for glory. Crassus, Pompey the Great, and Julius Caesar were all part of this chain, with the rivalry between the last two being the most important. Caesar was an ambitious man who seemed to see the corruption that had existed in the Republic and used that knowledge to further his ambition. His opponents in the Senate turned to Pompey the Great to oppose him. Pompey did so in fear that Caesar's rise would lead to the loss of his own power. This lead to the civil war begun by Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon. In the end, Caesar won the war and took over the Roman government. Caesar ruled as a Republican leader, forcing through elections to make him Dictator for Life, which was technically unconstitutional by Roman tradition. Brutus, Cassius, and a small group of conspirators assassinated Caesar because of this, and then fled Rome, before Caesar's generals could avenge him, or wanting to be away from Rome, thinking the Roman people would launch a massive rebellion against Caesar's supporters. They did not, and one of Caesar's generals, Marcus Antonius (Mark Anthony), and Caesar's nephew, Octavius, were given the powers that Caesar had, and took their armies after the assassins. The wars between the assassins of Caesar and the defenders of Caesar left the assassins dead. The victors then divided the Roman world amongst themselves as a sort of spoils. Octavius retained Rome, Italy, Gaul and Spain. Anthony received Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, and oversight over the client state of Judea. Anthony also had access to Egypt where he quickly established an alliance with its Queen, Cleopatra. North Africa was given to an elderly man known as Lepidus, but his territory was quickly absorbed by Octavius, leaving the Roman world divided between Caesar's nephew and adopted son, and his general. Using his alliance with Cleopatra, Anthony provoked Octavius into war, and the two sides met at Actium, where Anthony's forces were soundly defeated. Anthony and Cleopatra both committed suicide, and Cleopatra's son, Caesarian was caught and executed. With no rivals left, and the threat of conspiracy minimized, Octavius returned to Rome where the Senate named him Augustus with the title of Princips, or first citizen. Essentially making Caesar's nephew Rome's first Emperor and beginning Rome's imperial history.

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