What Led to the Fall of the Sikh Empire?

During ranjit singh the power of the sikhs was on climax.ranjit singh gave special attention to the organization of army he had built a state whose main base was army the main foundation of a military state is efficient leadership.after the death of ranjit singh the army become cause of dissolution of sikh Kingdome. After ranajit singh due to the weak successors all power went to the khalsa army.in the 5 yrs of the death of ranjit Singh the number of soldiers increased 3 times and salary was also increased and due to the decreasing income of the state this situation became unbearable. Soldiers formed their own Panchayats through them they start making important decisions like military campaigns,supporting the state's clamaint etc. thus due to the absence of skilled leadership basic power of state became the reason for decline of state. And other important reason for decline of sikh state was internal conspiracy. Thus the moral decline of army ,internal conspiracy,falling economic situation make sikh state a victim of the british policy of grab.

1. Are there any alternatives to a Netanyahu-led government in Israel and, if so, what are they?

Israel heads to the polls on March 17th, 2015, and Benjamin Netanyahu, though still the front-runner, appears to be vulnerable. I look at the challenge facing Labor, Netanyahu's main opposition, the Labor has governed Israel for only 8. Four elements are needed for Labor to win:1. The incumbent--Netanyahu--has to be vulnerable in his own right, which Netanyahu is.2. Labor needs to shift the debate toward the economy, where it has an electoral advantage. 3. Labor has to present a credible alternative on national security, it's electoral weakness, and4. Labor needs a credible leader to replace the incumbent. nFor the full post.

2. What tv to buy? LED or Plazma?

PLAZMAAAAAA!!(= WOOOOOHOOOOO!!

3. how to put led to indicate the signal is functioning

As Olin points out, it's hard to tell what you are really asking. I am going to assume that you want an indicator LED to light up whenever the optocoupler in ON. In that case, your circuit should look like the one below:The "limit switch", when closed, should tied the INPUT signal to 3. 3V and light up the indicator LED and the optocoupler's internal LED. The OUTPUT signal goes to an input of your PIC microcontroller.The value of the resistors will depend on the optocoupler and the LED you choose to use.

4. wiring multiple led flashlights to single power source [closed]

Let me start out with a summary of my understanding of the problem.The goal is to eliminate buying lots of batteries by centralizing the power source used for a system of between 15 and 30 lanterns, each separated by 30 feet, for a distance run that can be from 500 to 1000 feet long. These lanterns, in prior use, used a set of (3) AAA batteries and are very simple lanterns using one resistor of $22:Omega$ and (24) parallel-wired LEDs. (Parallel-wiring like that does not allow the LEDs to share current as well as they may, but it's how it was done and these are just lanterns so variations between the 24 LEDs is fine for this application.) Each lantern requires approximately:$$I_lantern=frac4.5:textrmV-2:textrmV22:Omegale 125:textrmmA$$Some options to consider:Well, those are some directions that could be used without needing to modify the lanterns. If you are open to completely new lantern designs, then there are still more options to consider.Since Passerby dragged my attention back here, might as well expose the computation for computing the voltage drop at the far-end of the line given periodic loads along a line. (I've no clue if there is a commonly used symbol for $fracOmega1000:textrmft$, so I am just calling it $k_wire$ for now. $D$ will be the total distance of the run. $N$ will be the number of periodic loads, which divide up the total distance into $N$ segments of wire. $I_load$ is the per-unit load. The first load is one segment downstream of the power source. The last load is at the very end.)$$beginalign* V_drop &= sum_i=1^N left[I_i=I_loadcdotleft(N-i1

ight)

ight]cdotleft[R_i=2cdotfrack_wirecdot D1000cdot N

ight] V_drop &= I_loadcdotleftcdotfrack_wirecdot D1000cdot N

ight] sum_i=1^N left(N-i1

ight) V_drop &= I_loadcdotleftcdotfrack_wirecdot D1000cdot N

ight]cdotleft[ sum_i=1^N N-sum_i=1^N isum_i=1^N1

ight] V_drop &= I_loadcdotleftcdotfrack_wirecdot D1000cdot N

ight]cdotleft[ N^2-sum_i=1^N iN

ight] V_drop &= I_loadcdotleftcdotfrack_wirecdot D1000cdot N

ight]cdotleft[ fracN^2N2

ight] V_drop &= left[I_total=I_loadcdotfracN12

ight]cdot left[R_total=2cdot k_wirecdotfracD1000

ight] endalign*$$This proves that it comes out very close to the natural presumption of using an average current that is one-half the total current (for large $N$) times the total wire resistance, out and back. But it never hurts to do the math to test common sense. (And to also see that it's not exactly the same, too.)

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LiTTT Snaps LED Strips Together Without Solder
LiTTT Snaps LED Strips Together Without Solder
Programmable RGB and RGBW LEDs, especially in strip form, have revolutionized the kind of lighting effects that creators can easily make. Working with strips, however, normally means breaking out the soldering iron. If for some reason you need to make changes, you then have to repeat the process over again — hopefully without damaging anything.If you’d prefer for things to be more plug-and-play, the LiTT Snap! system, by Daniel Tooker, features electrical connectors that — you guessed it — simply snap together. They form connections by bending the strip inside of a square piece of RPVC extrusion, or into an equivalent 3D-printed shape. The system is now available on Kickstarter, featuring 90 and 45 degree connectors, extrusion, and the RGBW LEDs themselves, along with the pigtails needed to connect everything to power and your favorite dev board.It’s an interesting concept, but the stretch goals expand things even further, including a 135- and 180-degree connector, as well as mounting hardware, and even a rotating corner connector. As an added bonus, if successful, this campaign will help in the development of the LiTTT HUB. The aim of the hub is to be a connected lighting controller “to rule them all,” further simplifying what you can do with these amazing strips!.·RELATED QUESTIONWere can I get quality outdoor LED lighting for my landscape project?If short maintenance, eco friendly landscape lighting is a precedence for you, outdoor LED lighting is a ideal option for your landscape lighting design. LED landscape lighting offers the protection, security and artistic qualities as any other landscape lighting solution, but it also offers a concentrated ecological footprint and lower maintenance.You can emphasize the beautiful architecture of your home’s external or landscaping with tactically placed outdoor lighting by LV Lightings. While your options may seem endless, it’s significant to believe the role you want your outdoor lights to play. Will they be for security reasons, or for more ornamental purposes?Outdoor LED lightingmay be more luxurious up front than other options, but in the long run it will go easier on your wallet than other bulbs. From LV Lighting’s LED lights have a long life span and offer excellence lighting that is power efficient.Whatever options you settle on, you’re sure to find a extensive selection of charming and well-designed landscape lighting right here on LV Lightings.
LED Ring Lamp DIY Diagram
Step 1: required componentsYou will need the following components20x 5W SMT LED1X voltage buck converterI used a 3mm Thich 8.5-inch aluminum appliance coverHeat conducting greasepower cordToggle switch20V 350ts laptop power supplyStep 2: cut a circle inside the aluminum coverI cut the diameter circle on the aluminum cover on the 4-inch latheGrind the sharp edges with sandpaper to smooth the sharp edgesStep 3:Apply thermal grease to the 5-watt SMD LEDs and place it in the circle.Took a piece of propylene and cut it into a circle 4 inches in diameter.Now, if you want to copy it in the same way, you need to use the exact measurement of your lens, and then cut a circle inside so that it can be placed above your lensWith luck, my acrylic sheet fits my lens perfectly.Step 4: weld LEDsAfter placing the LEDs, they need to be welded in parallelPositive pole and amplifier; GND parallel.It is recommended to use thick welding wire and solderStep 5: circuit diagramPlease check this circuit diagram for reference.Step 6: adjust the power supplyConnect the led to the variable power supply & amp; Check the optimum voltage with a multimeterThe supply voltage is 20 volts and a step-down converter is connected to reach 11.8 volts and 2 amps.Step 7: connect the ring light to the cameraSo once it's done, you need to take some rubber bands and stick them on the acrylic resin, as I didIt is recommended to use spebb7 or epoxy resin adhesive or hot adhesive (hot adhesive is not reliable).Then connect the power supply.Step 8: test photosFirst of all, I was really clicked on some macro photos, and the results were very good.It can also be used for video production, video production and rainbow shootingStep 9: Review & amp; improvisationRig, the result is very good, but I noticed something I want to tell you.The heating is because the aluminum cover is very thin, so the picture above is the second version of it. I used a thicker plate (the constructables of ring lamp VER2.0 will be uploaded soon).
Small Tips for LED Drive Design: Five Key Points
1. Chip heatingThis is mainly for the high-voltage drive chip with built-in power modulator. If the current consumed by the chip is 2mA and a voltage of 300V is added to the chip, the power consumption of the chip is 0.6W, which will certainly cause the chip to heat up. The maximum current of the driving chip comes from the consumption of the driving power MOS transistor, and the simple calculation formula is I = CVF (considering the resistance benefit of charging, the actual I = 2cvf, where C is the CGS capacitance of the power MOS transistor and V is the gate voltage when the power transistor is turned on, so in order to reduce the power consumption of the chip, we must find ways to reduce C, V and F. if C, V and f cannot be changed, please find a way to divide the power consumption of the chip into devices outside the chip, and be careful not to introduce additional power consumption. A simpler point is to consider Better heat dissipation.2. Power tube heatingOn this issue, I've also seen some people post in the Power Grid Forum. The power consumption of the power tube is divided into two parts, switching loss and conduction loss. It should be noted that in most occasions, especially in LED commercial power drive applications, the switching damage is much greater than the conduction loss. The switching loss is related to the CGD and CGS of the power tube and the driving capacity and working frequency of the chip, so we should solve the problem of the power tube Heating can be solved from the following aspects: A. MOS power tubes cannot be selected unilaterally according to the on resistance, because the smaller the internal resistance, the greater the CGS and CGD capacitance. For example, the CGS of 1N60 is about 250pf, the CGS of 2n60 is about 350pf, and the CGS of 5n60 is about 1200pf. The difference is too great. When selecting power tubes, it is enough. B. the rest is the frequency and chip driving ability, Here we only talk about the influence of frequency. The frequency is also directly proportional to the conduction loss, so when the power tube is heating, first think about whether the frequency selection is a little high. Find a way to reduce the frequency! However, it should be noted that when the frequency is reduced, in order to obtain the same load capacity, the peak current must become larger or the inductance will become larger, which may lead to the inductance entering the saturation region. For example If the saturation current of the inductor is large enough, it can be considered to change CCM (continuous current mode) to DCM (discontinuous current mode), so it is necessary to add a load capacitance.3. Operating frequency reductionThis is also a common phenomenon during debugging. The frequency reduction is mainly caused by two aspects. The proportion of input voltage and load voltage is small and the system interference is large. For the former, be careful not to set the load voltage too high. Although the load voltage is high, the efficiency will be high. For the latter, you can try the following aspects: A. set the minimum current lower; B Clean the wiring, especially the key path of sense; C. select the small point of inductance or the inductance of closed magnetic circuit; D. add RC low-pass filter. The impact is a little bad. The consistency of C is not good and the deviation is a little large, but it should be enough for lighting. In any case, frequency reduction is not good, but only bad, so it must be solved.4. Selection of inductance or transformerFinally, let's get to the point. I haven't started yet. I can only talk nonsense about the impact of saturation. Many users respond that the inductance produced with a is OK for the same drive circuit, and the inductance current produced with B becomes smaller. In this case, we should look at the inductance current waveform. Some engineers don't notice this phenomenon and directly adjust the sense resistance or working frequency to meet the needs This may seriously affect the service life of the LED. Therefore, reasonable calculation is necessary before design. If the theoretically calculated parameters and commissioning parameters are far from each other, consider whether to reduce the frequency and whether the transformer is saturated. When the transformer is saturated, l will become smaller, resulting in a sharp increase in the peak current increment caused by transmission delay, and the peak current of the LED will also increase With the increase. Under the premise that the average current remains unchanged, we can only watch the light decay.5. LED current sizeWe all know that if the ledripple is too large, the life of the LED will be affected. We haven't seen any experts say how much the impact is. We've asked the LED factory about this data before, and they said it's acceptable within 30%, but it hasn't been verified later. It's recommended to control it as small as possible. If the heat dissipation is not solved well, the LED must be reduced. I hope some experts can give us a specific explanation Indicators, otherwise it will affect the promotion of LED.
Facts About LED Tube Lighting
In a universe of expanding natural mindfulness, the interest for vitality productive lighting is continually developing. Many individuals and organizations are looking for lighting alternatives that decrease vitality utilization as well as are cost proficient and profoundly practical. LED tube lighting may offer an answer for some buyers.What is LED lighting? LED remains for light-discharging diode. They are little semiconductor chips that change over power into light as it goes through them. Conventional glowing lighting produces light as an auxiliary yield from a seriously warmed fiber requiring a lot of vitality. Yet, LEDs change over a large portion of the vitality that courses through them into the light, and can in this way be about twice as productive as brilliant globules.Late advances in fluorescent lighting innovation have made minimal glaring lights (CFLs) an undeniably famous vitality sparing choice for customers. Be that as it may, LED lighting is significantly more proficient over the long haul as a result of its long life expectancy. LEDs can last 50–75 times longer than brilliant lights and 6–8 times longer than CFLs. While the forthright expenses for LEDs stays more costly than incandescents and fluorescents, the extraordinary effectiveness and long life make them both a cost saver and a vitality saver after some time.Then, there are noteworthy wellbeing and natural risks related with glaring lights. Numerous fluorescents contain mercury, which is exceedingly poisonous and possibly risky. In spite of the fact that CFLs ordinarily contain just little measures of mercury, any introduction is possibly hurtful, and despicable transfer could posture long haul wellbeing dangers in structures, landfills, and water sources. Likewise, numerous CFLs are canvassed in a phosphor covering that adds to the risks of breakage and transfer.Any individual who has worked in an office or distribution center with fluorescent tube lighting thinks about the bothering and diversion of continually glimmering lights. Now and again, fluorescent glimmering over long stretches can even bring about vision and eye issues. Another favorable position of tube lighting with LEDs is the disposal of gleaming. LEDs do lose their iridescence of time, however the yield for their promoted life expectancy is an unfaltering, clear stream of light.With lesser wellbeing and natural effects and more prominent vitality proficiency, LED lighting appears like a conspicuous alternative. In any case, while LEDs have been around for a considerable length of time for restricted applications as show and pointer lights, it has just been later that LED innovation has led to LEDs that can deliver the kind and measure of brightening essential for general utilize. In the interim, as with other semiconductor advancements, one can expect that LED lighting will just keep on improving.LED tube lighting may offer an answer for some organizations and buyers looking for expanded vitality productivity and lessened ecological effect. It might mean an extra forthright venture, yet introducing tube LED lighting could be a cost sparing move as time goes on. Also, as the innovation enhances, the advantages will probably increment too·RELATED QUESTIONWhat's the meaning of Sia's Chandelier song?Before Chandelier, Sia was a singer with mediocre success.She was really struggling to push her career when she lost her partner to an accident. She got addicted to drugs, suffered depression and even wrote a suicide note. Drugs and alcohol were her only coping mechanisms. This song is about the time she was addicted to alcohol and drugs and her struggle to get out of it.In an interview, Sia said that she always knew she was a drinker and that she must stop, her guilt, shame is what the following lyrics suggest:-Sun is up, I'm a messGotta get out now, gotta run from thisHere comes the shame, here comes the shame.. but, out of peer pressurephones blowing up, they're ringing my door bells, I feel the love..she did not stop.1,2,3 ... 1,2,3 drinkthrow them back till I lose countThe only time she could escape from reality was when she was high, under the influence of alcohol and drugs. She could be carefree, live like tomorrow didn't exist.I'm gonna swing from the chandelier, from the chandelierI'm gonna live like tomorrow doesn't existLike it doesn't existI'm gonna fly like a bird through the nightChandelier is ultimately a brutally honest tale of substance abuse.Sia wrote the song for Rihanna but I am so glad that she kept this one for herself.
for Several Lighting Applications
COB LED Series from Edison, with different operating powers & different colors and are along with best luminous & color uniformity and excellent reliability. This COB series are with excellent reflectivity and high thermal conductivity and can be widely used in several lighting applications as general lightings such as spotlight, downlight, high bay light, and floodlight and it combines the advantages of performance, reliability, and ease-of-use in one Led. For more information and inquiry please visit@ ly/2Vmi0Gm.·RELATED QUESTIONHow good are the COB LED grow lights?Integrated LED is generally a different name for COB LED in the market, but in fact it cannot describe the characteristics of COB LED clearly. COB refers to Chip-On-Board, which directly encapsulates a small power chip on an aluminum substrate for fast heat dissipation, with a small chip area, high efficiency of heat dissipation and low driving current. Therefore, it has high heat dissipation with low thermal resistance and high thermal conductivity. Compared with ordinary SMD LED, it features higher brightness, lower thermal resistance ( 6℃/W ), lower light attenuation, higher apparent index, perfect light spot and long life.Low-power LEDs of SMD uniformly arranged on the aluminum substrate also known as integrated LED. In fact this integration is only soldering the SMD LED package ( finished LEDs ) on the aluminum substrate ( as shown in Figure 1 below ), instead of COB LEDs; COB directly packages the small power chip ( LED chip ) onto the aluminum substrate ( as shown in fig. 2 ). All COB LEDs are integrated LEDs, but not all integrated LEDs are COB.The SMD LED is a single bead of patch LED lamp. COB LED is integrated with several SMD LED chips and packaged into a whole, which is smaller in size and higher in brightness than SMD LEDs with the same power.
How to Use Legal Led Light Bars for Your New Home?
What is legal led light bars?If you own a business, it is important to know how to use legal led light bars. There are many different types of legal led light bars and they all have different designations. Legal led light bars are used in homes, offices, restaurants, hotels, schools, churches, offices, shopping malls, banks, hospitals, educational institutions, banks, etc. It is also important to understand how to use legal led light bars properly. It is best to learn how to use legal led light bars properly.There are many types of legal led light bars. These include but are not limited to: simple electricity and lighting, oil lamps, fluorescent lights, bar light, side mounted lights, decorative led light, parking lot light, emergency lighting, or turnstile light. There are also some other types of legal led light bars that you can buy from us. If you have any questions about legal led light bars, contact us at [email protected].If you have any questions about led light bars, please contact your local law firm. Our lawyers will be glad to help you. Just send us an email and we will get back to you as soon as possible. If you have any questions about led light bars, please contact your local law firm.Lead light bars are an effective way to keep people away from people who may be walking in your neighborhood. There are two types of led light bars: Street and Cross-road. They are more commonly used in older homes, such as garages and walkways. A road light bar will allow you to get into your home without going into your yard. When you turn on the light bar, you can choose a different type of light bar for your home. The best way to use led light bars is to make sure that they are sturdy and lightweight. This will help you avoid injuries.Types of legal led light barsThe key to using legal led light bars is to use them correctly. Legal led light bars are used by police and other law enforcement agencies. The only requirement is that they be located in a locked room or another area of the building. If you are having trouble finding a legal led light bar, ask for help from a lawyer or contact the lawyer directly. Legal led light bars are also known as front lights and can be used by police and other law enforcement agencies. If you need legal led light bars then contact the lawyers at O'Reilly Law Offices.Legal led light bars are an effective way to help people who are working in law. They are designed to be easier to use and they have many advantages over traditional lighting and also offer some very convenient ways to do things like pass out beer and other drinks. These types of light bars can also be used for businesses that want to sell their products or hire staff to provide support for customers.If you are buying a new home, there are many different types of legal led light bars available. The best legal led light bars can be found at www.law-youth.org.uk/search/legal-led-light-bars. They can be found at www.law-youth.org.uk/search/legal-led-light-bars. All of these legal led light bars can be found at www.law-youth.org.uk/search/legal-led-light-bars.Lawyers are all lawyers, so if you have any questions about how to use legal led light bars then contact your local law firm. They will help you decide what type of legal led light bar is best for you. Legal led light bars are meant to provide a solution to problems in their field. There are different types of legal led light bars available and they can be used for various purposes. If you are interested in using legal led light bars then make sure you check out their website and get more information about the types of legal led light bars available.Style and Design of legal led light barsIt is not always easy to create and find the right kind of lighting. Some people will work in groups and others may be called upon to use them for everyday tasks. It is very important to choose the right kind of lighting for your home. This will help you make sure that you have a good quality lighting for your home. You should look at what type of lighting you are looking for and how much you can save by buying a quality lighting.Led light bars are not always made to withstand heavy use. If you have a bad case of bad light then you need to know what is the best way to use them. This is because most people don't realize that they can only use one type of led light bar. It is also because of how well they work. They can do all kinds of things in their jobs. The first thing that you need to do is determine what type of led light bar you are using. A good way to do this is to ask for help from your friends and family.With legal led light bars, you can see how people are using these lights in different ways. The rules for using legal led light bars vary by state. Most states have some form of regulation that requires them to use a warning when it is not their intention to use them. There are also some state laws that require that they use an actual law in place. These laws may be used by police or other government agencies to detect illegal parking.The first step towards using legal led light bars is to find out what type of light they are and how they work. When you have found a good design for your home then it is best to make sure that the lighting is suitable for your needs. The design of legal led light bars will help you to make sure that the light is safe to use. A good lighting system will ensure that the light is not damaged by any damage that may occur to your eyes.Material and Color of legal led light barsThey are just a group of cheap lights that you can get at your local hardware store and use to create an artificial light barrier around your home. The most important thing is to have good lighting so that you can make sure that your home is as beautiful as possible. They are really easy to use and will work in any type of home. A good way to do this is to check the product instructions on the light bar before you purchase it. Also, if you don't have good lighting then make sure that you have a durable light bar that will last a long time.When you see someone taking their hands off of a case, it's because they're so clumsy. But if you look at the image of a young woman with an unflinching expression on her face, it's because they're wearing very low-tech eyewear. If you look at the image of a teenager who is standing in a parking lot, it's because they're wearing high-tech eyewear. This type of technology can help people focus on what they're doing, which is something that lawyers do.Some of the world's most popular and reliable lamps are very strong and lightweight. They have high durability and they also come in a variety of colors. These lamps can be easily lit by your eyes and can be mounted on your car or even placed on your wall. You can choose from different styles and you can add some style to your home with the added bonus of privacy and security.The law is simple, it is not complicated and does not need to be complicated. A good lawyer will help you with your legal issues. You need to check that the laws are properly followed and that they are in accordance with the law. If you have questions about the law, please contact the office of the District Attorney.
DIY 9 Volt LED Emergency/Backpack Flash Light
Just what you need for an emergency or a camping trip! It's small, it's bright it runs off one of the most common and versatile battery's around the 9 Volt. You can switch it on and off and its so small you can fit it any where. You can carry it every day and doesn't weigh much in your pocket or pack plus it is super efficient! Its the perfect Emergency/Backpack LED Flash light!1: You will need two 9 Volt battery's one good one and one dead the dead one is a parts donor.2: You will need one 9 Volt battery top.(see picture parts donor 9 Volt)3. You will need one 9 Volt battery bottom.(see picture donor 9 Volt)4. You will need 3 wires one black one red and one copper wire. (see picture each one about 2" in length) 5. You will need one small but strong magnet.(see picture)6. You will need 3 white LEDs.1. You will need a Push Pin (Be careful! It is Sharp!)2. You will need some solder (Use the stuff with out lead)3. A soldering iron. (Be careful! It is hot!)4. Wire strippers (You could use a razor blade if you don't have wire strippers but be careful! don't cut yourself)5. Hot glue gun and glue. (Be careful! It is hot hence hot glue!)6. Small screw driver to pry open the battery(Be careful! Don't stab yourself!)Now that you have been warned of all the hazards! Don't blame me if you do something dumb! Pro tip: Use wacky tack poster tack to hold your parts in place for assembly. (Don't eat this!)To find a good parts battery, I use my old smoke director battery's that I replace each year. They work great for parts and some times they work for the flash light too and will power it for weeks or a month.Here is a good look at some common 9 volt battery's and what there is in them for you to salvage. I like the Duracell's! for the donor battery. As for led's you can find them every where I got mine from a broken 4' led replacement T8 light bulb. You can find them in McDonald's toys, light bulbs in the house, key chain flash lights that people toss when the button cells die. You can find them in old sidewalk led lights is a good source.There all over the place take a look around.First off be careful! don't stab your self with the screw driver or cut your self on the metal 9 volt case because it is sharp as a razor!First pry up one side of the 9 volt as shown.Then start to pry around the edge until it is wide enough to pull the inside out. As shown. First place all three led's on there side lined up next to each other on the black 9 volt battery bottom and use the push pin to make small holes at the end of on the metal leads in the black 9 volt battery bottom you should have 6 holes. Note: Push just enough to get the tip of the push pin through, if you push it all the way through the hole will be to big.Now line up the LED's from minus to plus all in a row then push them through the black 9 volt bottom as shown. (see the picture on how to tell plus from minus on an LED.)First cut the copper wire to and lay it between pin 2 and pin -3 and solder the wire and pin 2 & 3 together as shown.Now cut the copper wire to and lay it between pin 4 and pin -5 and solder the wire and pin 4 & 5 together as shownNow the LEDs are in place go to step three.Now that you have the LED's soldered in place now solder on the power leads on and use your wacky tack to hold the leads in place as shown. Don't forget to check what side is positive and what side is negative check the picture on step two to figure this out if you don't know. Once you have the positive and negative leads soldered on then rap them around like the picture as shown.Now test it to see if you did step two right touch the red to the or positive and the black to the - or negative if it lights up you did it right! if not go back to step two and review.The next step is to attach the the power connectors and solder them in place.Remember the plus and minus are reversed from the battery Now that you have the wires squished between the two sides make sure the wires are with in the foot print of ether side. Now lay it on it side and squirt hot glue in the middle just enough that it comes to the sides and let it cool and get hard enough not to move.Next turn it over and squirt glue in the middle on the other side and just enough that it comes to the sides and let it cool and get hard. Once you have it mostly full, now take it and turn it on each and finish fill each side until full.Pro tip: find some metal and as you fill the last bit press it on the metal and it will press it smooth and cool it quickly at the same time. It will give it a smoother better finished look.So now that you have it done you can stick a magnet to the side of the 9 volt and mount it any where. If you hook the light on to one side of the battery and turn it on the connector until it makes contact with the other side you can use it like an on and off switch. I like to keep a few of them mounted under my bed to the bed frame In case of an emergency at night this way I always know where my flash light is.
How to Bring More Outside Light into a House
Dark rooms can make your home feel small and dreary, and letting some natural light in is a great way to open up the space. The easiest way to bring more outside light into your house is to clean and open up your windows so they are letting in as much light as possible. However, even if you do not have a ton of bright windows in your home, there are still things you can do to make it sunnier, like painting your walls a lighter color and using reflective decor. For particularly dark rooms, you can also use LED lights and special fixtures that replicate natural lighting.1. Neon or LED lights under a car in canada legal?Under Car Led Lights2. if only led lights, nation wide were used, what reduction in electricity is there?What nation? The US? Well, the Department of Energy puts it in the 300 terawatt range, though they do not say 100% or cover a mix of LED and Fluorescent.3. Are these 3 switches wired correctly?The switches appear to be wired correctly. The switch on the right appears to be an LED-compatible, triac dimmer. But you have one triac-dimmer switch for LED lights (on the right), and another switch that controls the fan plus another LED bulb? This bulb is the problem. .. or this fixture cannot be used with that particular model of LED bulb.Generally, LED dimmers are not the same as fan dimmers. You can not dim many models of LED lights with a fan dimmer unless you had LED bulb(s) that are specifically compatible with traditional or fan dimmers (now technically, fan dimmers are actually a little different than traditional dimmers, but for your issue that should not really matter). I think you need to find an LED bulb that says it is compatable with traditional dimmers for the one socket being operated by the fan switch4. how do i wire led lights in my car? i have an extra set from a 2006scion tc for my car, a mazda 626(1999).?On a car the ground is the body of the vehcile. Other than that, what kind of l.e.d.'s are they...what are they for? interior, outside, decorative?5. How to power a circuit of LEDs with maximum 5vThe company, Evans Designs, makes LED lights for electric trains. They are not all that expensive, either, and come with necessary circuitry.To a first approximation, common $5:textrmmm$ LEDs should be operated with a constant current and not a constant voltage. Clearly, you know that. But given the wider dynamic range of your source voltage, a special circuit to provide a constant current would help.If you want to try doing this with just one (or two) BJT(s), you could attempt either of the following two choices at very low cost.simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabCurrent for the LED in the left-hand side circuit comes through $R_2$, with $Q_1$ diverting (it's a shunt regulator) any extra current through its collector. $R_2=fracV_BE_1I_led$. (You can assume that $V_BE_1approx 760-800:textrmmV$ for a small signal device.) And $R_1=fracV_min-V_led-V_BE_11.5cdot I_led$, where $V_min$ is your minimum DC operating voltage and $V_led$ is, of course, your LED's operating voltage. The serious problem for this circuit is that $R_1$ will dissipate terrible amounts of power when operating at the higher voltages. Perhaps a watt, or more, as it has to drop all that extra voltage.The right hand circuit attempts to deal with that problem. In this case, $Q_3$ will be dissipating the excess power at higher voltages. But since the current is fixed (roughly) across the input voltage ranges, the power is not terrible. Perhaps $200:textrmmW$ when talking about $I_led=20:textrmmA$. But keep in mind that this goes linearly upwards with increasing LED current and linearly downward when talking about less LED current. So just be aware of that.In this right-hand circuit, $Q_3$ wo not be operated in saturation. With $V_BE_2approx 680:textrmmV$ and $V_ledle 3. 2:textrmV$, $V_CE_3$ should be enough to stay out of saturation. However, if the LED voltage is more, then it's possible that $Q_3$ might go a little into saturation. So I would recommend assuming $beta_3approx 50$ for purposes of setting $R_4$. So, $R_4=beta_3cdotfracV_min-V_BE_2-V_BE_3I_led$ to supply needed base current for $Q_3$ (plus a little, given that $beta_3$ is taken as a relatively low value.) Without $Q_2$ and $R_3$ present, there would be no current control. But with $R_3=fracV_BE_2I_led$, the voltage developed across $R_3$ will begin to turn on $Q_2$, which will shunt (sink) base current away from $Q_3$ when the LED current rises more than desired. The result of all this on the right-hand circuit is that there is not so much of a waste of power. It's better, in short, than the left-hand circuit when considering dissipation. But it costs you some complexity. Still, it's small and easy enough that you can pack it into heat-shrink tubing and be done with it. It should work fine. My recommendation, of course, is the right-hand circuit. Even with higher desired LED currents, you can probably get away with a small signal BJT. But I would recommend testing that idea, too. It's a maybe and not a for-sure. One thing I worry about here is that there is no temperature compensation at all and if $Q_3$ heats up a lot and passes that heat along to $Q_2$, then base-emitter junction voltage of $Q_2$ drops significantly and this will reduce the LED current. But I think it may be fine for $20:textrmmA$ and may be still somewhat less "ok" at somewhat higher currents.NOTE: [If you found a problem with heating in the right-hand circuit (unlikely with $I_led=15:textrmmA$), I might parallel two small signal BJTs as $Q_3$ and, if being really picky, might only connect the collectors and bases together, but not connect the emitters directly -- instead using a small series resistor in each emitter leg before connecting them together. In this picky case, I would select these two emitter resistors to drop about $200:textrmmV$, so with $I_led=15:textrmmA$ these would probably be $12-15:Omega$ resistor values.]I get my BJTs at about 3 for a penny. My resistors cost me as much, too. So that's about two cents for the right-hand circuit, plus labor, solder, shrink-wrap, and the LED of course. In short, the electronics bits are essentially free and they are not boutique parts and never will be. So it's good in that sense, as well.
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