Introduction to Video Clips
1. A of video clips
A (stylized as ) is an extended play (EP)A by Japanese recording artist Ayumi Hamasaki. It was released by Avex Trax in Japan and Hong Kong on August 11, 1999, in 10 different editions, and through Avex Entertainment Inc. worldwide in September 2008. It also served as a single through her second studio album Loveppears (1999), and is her first single marketed as an EP. The EP includes the four original tracks "Monochrome", "Too Late", "Trauma", and "End Roll", all served as promotional single from A, alongside eight remixes. The tracks written by Hamasaki herself, while production was handled by long-time collaborator Max Matsuura.
Musically, A is a pop rock album that is influenced by dance music, a common trait that runs throughout its parent album. Lyrically, the original tracks are written in third person perspective and deal with themes such as nostalgia, anxiety and trauma. Upon its release, A received favorable reviews from music critics as both a collection and by individual tracks. Some of the tracks were highlighted as examples of Hamasaki's best work, whilst some praised the production of the original songs in compared to the album versions. However, a critic from CD Journal criticized the amount of remixes on the EP.
Commercially, the single was a success in Japan, peaking at number one on the Oricon Singles Chart and TBS' Count Down TV chart. It became Hamasaki's second consecutive single to sell over one million units in that region, and was certified Million by the Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ) for shipments of one million units. It is Hamasaki's highest selling single, and additionally within Japan music history. No music videos were shot for the tracks, but Hamasaki and the original recordings appeared in commercial videos that broadcast in Japan. Each individual original track has appeared on Hamasaki's greatest hits albums, such as A Best (2001) and A Complete: All Singles (2008).
2. Background and content of video clips
With the release of Apayr in January 2006, Hande Yener changed her musical style, and alongside pop music, she started to use elements of rock, house and R&B in her works. This change was praised by some critics, while others criticized her for it. Yener later stated in an interview that Apayr was released for the "sake of art", and she insisted that she wanted to make albums that could be "listened to twenty years later" and that she was seeking new material for her upcoming works. In mid 2006, she said that she was no longer a singer only with dance songs useful for "putting hands in the air".
On 8 September 2006, Hande Yener's second EP album and, in her own words, "another sample" of Apayr, was released by Erol Kse Production under the title Hande Maxi. The EP contains elements of house music and was produced by Yener herself. Alongside the songs "Biraz zgrlk", "Deri Eldiven" and "Heey ocuk", new versions of "Kelepe", written by Alper Narman and Fettah Can, and "Kim Bilebilir Ak" and "Yola Devam", written by Ertu Ergin, were included in the EP as well. Out of the three new songs, "Biraz zgrlk" and "Deri Eldiven" were written by Alper Narman. Narman used the nickname Boaz Aldujeli on the latter one. "Heey ocuk" was written by Hande Yener, while Alpaslan Nas created the poem section of the song. Erdem Knay, who had worked with Yener on her previous albums, composed the three new songs in the EP, and did the recordings and mixing of the new pieces. The photographs were taken by Kemal Doulu, who also served as the graphic designer together with Canda Arn.
3. Flag of the West Indies Federation of video clips
The flag of the West Indies Federation was used between 1958 and 1962. It bore four equally spaced narrow white stripes with a large orange-gold disc over the middle two lines in the center of the flag, undulating horizontally across a blue field representing the Caribbean Sea and the sun shining upon the waves. The flag was originally designed by Edna Manley. The flag is shown as 1:2; the upper two white stripes reflect the lower ones.
The official description given in the West Indies Gazette is "Flag approved has blue ground with four white horizontal wavy bars (the top pair of bars being parallel and the lower pair also parallel) and an orange sun in the centre." "Blue", unless qualified, usually means the same blue as in a Blue Ensign. However, whatever the establishing resolution called for, many copies were made that were at variance with it, as variants often show a pale blue or Imperial blue field.
The naval ensign (used by coast guard vessels) was a British white ensign with the federal flag in the canton.
Flag flying days were Commemorative Days-the usual British flag flying days, and Federal Days-January 3, Inception of the Federation; February 23, Federation Day; and April 22, Inauguration of the Federal Parliament. Buildings with two flagstaffs were to fly the Union Jack and the Federation Flag on Commemorative Days and on Federal Days; the Union Jack at the staff on the left when facing the building. Buildings with only one staff were to fly the Union Jack on Commemorative Days and the Federation Flag on Federal Days.
Video clips of the flag at the 1960 Summer Olympics appear to show a red or bronze disc, lighter blue and the flag is symmetrical about both axes. The flag of the West Indies Federation was flown at the cricket test match between Australia and the West Indies held in Barbados in 1999. Despite the dissolution of the Federation in the 1960s and some countries and territories not being part of the Federation, the Caribbean nations compete together as one West Indies cricket team, but under a different flag.
Image according to the West Indies Federal Archives Centre at the University of the West Indies
4. International career of video clips
Dimitrova won the Sofia International Singing Competition in 1970, the prize including a course of study at La Scala's Scuola di Perfezionamento.
She made her Italian debut as Turandot in Treviso in 1975, and essayed the same role for her 1983 La Scala debut opposite tenor Plcido Domingo in Franco Zeffirelli's lavish production. She also sang at the Teatro Coln in Buenos Aires in 1974-75, where she sang Tosca, Turandot, Andrea Chenier, Il trovatore and Don Carlo. Her Turandot is also preserved in a video of the Arena di Verona production from 1983, with Nicola Martinucci and Cecilia Gasdia. In 1988, she made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York performing the same role.
Dimitrova once said of the role: "Turandot may not be my favorite part, but it shows off the voice to great advantage. The way the music is written, you need a voice like a trumpet to do it justice."
Her debut in the United States was in 1981 performing the role of Elvira in Ernani. She sang at the Barbican Arts Centre in Ponchielli's La Gioconda in 1983 before making her Covent Garden debut in the same year. Her late debut she later attributed simply to "politics".
Dimitrova also sang some mezzo-soprano roles in her repertory. The most notable of these were Amneris, which she did at La Scala's 1985 staging of Verdi's Aida opposite Maria Chiara in the title role and Luciano Pavarotti as Radames; and Eboli from Verdi's Don Carlo.
After retiring from the stage in 2001, Dimitrova remained active working with young singers. One of her best students is the soprano Elena Baramova.
Dimitrova died in Milan on 11 June 2005. After her death the Bulgarian Government promised to establish a fund in her name for promising young singers.
5. Cancellation of video clips
Following singer Taylor Swift's win for the music video "You Belong with Me" at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards for Best Female Video, West stormed the stage, grabbed Swift's microphone, and declared that singer Beyonc deserved the award for her "Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)" video. He declared, "Yo, Taylor, I'm really happy for you, and I'm going to let you finish, but Beyonc had one of the best videos of all time." West was profusely criticized by celebrities and fans alike over the incident. Following the interruption, the status of Fame Kills was rumored to be in question. A representative from a US urban radio station commented: "I think this could potentially affect his upcoming tour with Lady Gaga. This isn't an urban tourÂ urban audiences can be a bit more forgiving than mainstream audiences are. I can see him going on stage and people booing him. It's unfortunate." Less than a week after the ticket sales began, the tour was canceled but no reason was given.
Various rumors circulated as to why the tour was canceled. It was suspected that it was canceled due to poor ticket sales, feuding between Gaga and West's management teams, and Gaga's desire to play in smaller venues. Gaga's choreographer, Laurieann Gibson, said the tour was terminated due to "creative differences" between the singers. Gaga claimed that the cancellation was a mutual decision, and added that she would soon embark on her own headlining tour, The Monster Ball Tour in the coming weeks, while West would be taking a break. In 2016, West claimed that Gaga had been solely responsible for canceling the tour following the MTV incident.
Gaga was scheduled to begin The Monster Ball Tour in March 2010, but following the cancellation of Fame Kills, The Monster Ball Tour began in November 2009. Gaga said that while she was inspired by what she and West had planned to do with the Fame Kills tour, she decided not to use any of the ideas and concepts they created together, citing integrity.