Knowledge Related to Advanced Video Attribute Terminal Assembler and Recreator
The Advanced Video Attribute Terminal Assembler and Recreator (AVATAR) protocol is a system of escape sequences occasionally used on bulletin board systems (BBSes). Its basic level was designed explicitly as a compression of the much longer ANSI escape codes, and can thus render colored text and artwork faster over slow connections. Even when the terminal didn't understand it, the data on disk could use the AVATAR format and so take up less space.
AVATAR was adapted to Advanced Zansi/Avatar Terminal Handshaking Output Transfer Handler (AZATHOTH). It was never implemented but was included as zazt.sys.
The basic protocol is defined by FidoNet technical standard proposal FSC-0025.
Avatar was later extended in late 1989 to AVT/0 (sometimes referred to as AVT/0) which included facilities to scroll areas of the screen (useful for split screen chat, or full screen mail writing programs), as well as more advanced pattern compression. These extensions were not convertible directly into sequences understood by existing ANSI terminals but instead mirrored extra facilities available in the IBM PC BIOS.
Avatar was originally implemented in the Opus BBS, but later popularised by RemoteAccess. RemoteAccess came with a utility, AVTCONV that allowed for easy translation of ANSI documents into Avatar helping its adoption.
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Airline career of Bulletin Board
Creating Inter-Island AirwaysKennedy returned from WWI and resumed his career at the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company. His experience flying seaplanes led him to the possibility of using seaplanes to connect the people of Hawaii. He approached his father about adding a seaplane division to his company's offerings, but his father saw airplanes as "flying toys" to be used in only good weather.
Shortly after his father's death in 1926, Kennedy's proposal to the company's Board of Directors was accepted, and on January 30, 1929 Inter-Island Airways became a legal entity with Kennedy appointed vice president and general manager. Inter-Island Steam's Board Member F.C. Atherton was appointed President to oversee their investment of $300,000.
The first employees Kennedy hired were Navy pilot Charles Elliott as Chief Pilot and Army pilot Carl Cover as Operations Manager. Kennedy, Cover, and Elliott, all being WWI veterans, decided on Armistice Day (November 11) to be the inaugural flight in the Sikorsky S-38 amphibious airplanes. On November 11, 1929, Kennedy's dream of scheduled airline service in the Hawaiian Islands took flight as Elliott and Cover flew the two Sikorsky's in formation from Honolulu to Maui, then on to Hilo.
Starting an airline the month after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, was a daunting task. However, the Board of Directors had great faith in Kennedy, making him the President of both Inter-Island Steam Navigation and Inter-Island Airways in February 1933. The airline lost money for the first 5 years, until Kennedy was able to secure the airmail contract starting on October 8, 1934. This allowed Kennedy to start looking for larger airplanes to operate, and 10 days after the maiden airmail flight he decided on the Sikorsky S-43, making Inter-Island Airways the launch customer for this new aircraft.
Expanding beyond the islandsKennedy now aimed at expanding Inter-Island Airways to fly to the US mainland. To represent this, on October 1, 1941, Kennedy changed the airline's name to Hawaiian Airlines. In 1943, the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) released a route for application from Honolulu to San Francisco with a stopover in Los Angeles. Kennedy and TWA's president, Jack Frye, teamed up on the petition where Hawaiian would fly the routes,TWA would withdraw its application in exchange for 20% ownership of Hawaiian Airlines. Kennedy spent a great deal of time and money traveling to Washington, D.C. arguing Hawaiian's case to the CAB, but since Pacific Overseas Airline submitted they didn't get a chance at the application, the CAB decided to start the entire application process over again, but it was too expensive for Kennedy to attempt once more.
The route application process resurfaced in 1959, after Kennedy had handed over the Presidency to Art Lewis, but remained on as Chairman of the Board. This time Hawaiian was flying DC-6s to the mainland on charters, and felt they had an excellent chance to win the route. Once again to no avail, the route was awarded to Western Airlines. Kennedy would never get to see his airline fly to the mainland on a scheduled basis, as Hawaiian would have to wait until the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978.
First scheduled air-cargo service in the USAfter the Attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Territorial Governor Joseph Poindexter evoked Martial law in Hawaii. The War Shipping Administration took control of all Inter-Island Steam Navigation's ships, but allowed Hawaiian Airlines to operate under the Army's supervision. The ships that used to supply the islands with its consumer goods, were now devoted to transporting soldiers, munitions, and other war supplies throughout the islands. Kennedy petitioned the CAB to allow Hawaiian to fly these consumer goods on its airplanes, and was granted United States Air Cargo Certificate #1. Hawaiian removed the seats of its three remaining S-43s and lone remaining S-38 to use for cargo flights, allowing its DC-3s to fly the passengers. On March 20, 1942, Kennedy watched as Hawaiian's first air-cargo flight departed to serve the people of Hawaii.
Jet serviceOn April 1, 1966, Kennedy witnessed the final large milestone of his tenure at Hawaiian, the introduction of DC-9 jets for the inter-island service. During Kennedy's oversight of Hawaiian, he had grown it from a fledgling airline flying 8-seat seaplanes to an airline flying a fleet of modern jet airliners.
Career and research of Bulletin Board
Gusfield joined the faculty at Yale University in Computer Science in 1980, and left in 1986 to join the Department of Computer Science at UC Davis as an associate professor. Gusfield was made Professor of Computer Science in 1992 and served as the chair of the Department of Computer Science at UC Davis from 2000 to 2004. Gusfield was named distinguished professor in 2016, which is the highest campus-wide rank at the University of California at Davis.
Gusfield's early work was in combinatorial optimization and its real-world application. One of his early major results was in network flow, where he presented a simple technique to convert any network flow algorithm to one that builds a Gomory-Hu tree, using only five added lines of pseudo-code. Another contribution was in stable matching, where he contributed to a polynomial-time algorithm for the Egalitarian Stable Marriage Problem, proposed by Donald Knuth. Gusfield's work on stable marriage resulted in the book, co-authored with Robert Irving, The Stable Marriage Problem: Structure and Algorithms.
Starting in 1984, Gusfield branched out into computational biology, making Gusfield one of the very first few computer scientists to work in this field. His first result in computational biology was written in the Yale Technical Report The Steiner-Tree Problem in Phylogeny, which has never been published in a journal. His first published paper in computational biology, "Efficient Algorithms for Inferring Evolutionary History", was initially published as a technical report in 1988, and was subsequently was published in the journal Networks; this paper is now the most cited of Gusfield's papers. Gusfield's 1993 paper on multiple sequence alignment is the first publication indexed in PubMed under "computational biology".
Gusfield's impact on the early days of Computer Science research in algorithmic computational biology is substantial. He was a member of the United States Department of Energy Human Genome Research Program Panel in 1991, and a member of the steering committee for the Rutgers-Princeton DIMACS center special year on Mathematical Support for Molecular Biology from 1994 to 1995. In 1995, he co-organized the Dagstuhl Conference on Molecular Bioinformatics. He has been a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Computational Biology since its inception in 1996. At the University of California at Davis, he was part of a three-person group that proposed the development of the UC Davis Genomics Center, and served as a member of the Genomics Center Steering Committee (19992003), and helped to build an interdisciplinary community of biologists and computer scientists working together on genomics problems. Finally, in 2004, Gusfield helped propose the IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (TCBB), one of the few journals specifically oriented towards computer science and mathematical researchers working in computational biology. He served as its founding editor in chief until 2009, and later as chair of the TCBB Steering Committee. He was more recently an invited visiting scientist at the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing at UC Berkeley during two of its semester-long programs (first on Evolution, and later on Algorithmic Challenges in Genomics). In addition, Gusfield has been the PhD advisor or postdoctoral mentor for many well known computer scientists working in computational biology, including Prof. Oliver Eulenstein (Iowa State University), Dr. Paul Horton (Tokyo), Prof. Ming-Yang Kao (Northwestern University), Prof. John Kececioglu (Arizona), Prof. Yun S. Song (UC Berkeley and Univ. of Pennsylvania), Prof. R. Ravi (CMU), Prof. Jens Stoye (Bielefeld), Prof. Lusheng Wang (City University of Hong Kong), and Prof. Yufeng Wu (U. Connecticut).
Gusfield has made significant contributions to molecular sequence comparison and analysis, phylogenetic tree and phylogenetic network inference, haplotyping in DNA sequences, the multi-state perfect phylogeny problem using chordal graph theory, and fast algorithms for RNA folding. Since 2014 he has focused on the application and development of integer linear programming in computational biology.
Gusfield is most well known for his book Algorithms on Strings, Trees and Sequences: Computer Science and Computational Biology, which provides a comprehensive presentation of the algorithmic foundations of molecular sequence analysis for computer scientists, and has been cited more than 6000 times. This book has helped to define and develop the intersection of computer science and computational biology. His second book in computational biology is on phylogenetic networks, which are graph-theoretic models of evolution that go beyond the classical tree model, to address biological processes such as hybridization, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer.
Awards and honorsGusfield was named Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 2015 for contributions to combinatorial optimization and computational biology. In 2016, Gusfield was elected a Fellow of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) for "his notable contributions to computational biology, particularly his algorithmic work on building evolutionary trees, molecular sequence analysis, optimization problems in population genetics, RNA folding, and integer programming in biology." In 2016, Gusfield was named a distinguished professor at the University of California at Davis, which is the highest campus-wide rank.
He was elected an ACM Fellow in 2017.